This section discusses how to use notifications to propagate the domain events of an application.
If the domain events of an application can somehow be placed in a sequence, then the sequence of events can be propagated as a sequence of notifications.
- Three options
- Application sequence
- Notification logs
- Local notification logs
- Remote notification logs
- Notification log reader
Vaughn Vernon suggests in his book Implementing Domain Driven Design:
“at least two mechanisms in a messaging solution must always be consistent with each other: the persistence store used by the domain model, and the persistence store backing the messaging infrastructure used to forward the Events published by the model. This is required to ensure that when the model’s changes are persisted, Event delivery is also guaranteed, and that if an Event is delivered through messaging, it indicates a true situation reflected by the model that published it. If either of these is out of lockstep with the other, it will lead to incorrect states in one or more interdependent models”
He continues by describing three options. The first option is to have the messaging infrastructure and the domain model share the same persistence store, so changes to the model and insertion of new messages commit in the same local transaction.
The second option is to have separate datastores for domain model and messaging but have a two phase commit, or global transaction, across the two.
The third option is to have the bounded context control notifications. The simple logic of an ascending sequence of integers can allow others to progress along an application’s sequence of events. It is also possible to use timestamps.
The first option implies that each event sourced application functions cohesively also as a messaging service. Assuming that “messaging service” means an AMQP system, it seems impractical in a small library such as this to implement an AMQP broker, something that works with all of the library’s record manager classes. However, perhaps if Kafka could be adapted as a record manager, it could be used both to persist and propagate events.
The second option, which is similar to the first, involves using a separate messaging infrastructure within a two-phase commit, which could be possible, but seems unattractive. At least RabbitMQ can’t participate in a two-phase commit.
The third option is pursued below.
The third option doesn’t depend on messaging infrastructure, but does involve “notifications”. If the events of an application can be placed in a sequence, the sequence of events can be presented as a sequence of notifications, with notifications being propagated in a standard way. For example, notifications could be presented by a server, and clients could pull notifications they don’t have, in linked sections, perhaps using a standard format and standard protocols.
Pulling new notifications could resume whenever a “prompt” is received via an AMQP system. This way, the client doesn’t have the latency or intensity of a polling interval, the messaging infrastructure doesn’t need to deliver messages in order (which AMQP messaging systems don’t normally provide), and message size is minimised.
If the “substantive” changes enacted by a receiver are stored atomically with the position in the sequence of notifications, the receiver can resume by looking at the latest record it has written, and from that record identify the next notification to consume. This is obvious when considering pure replication of a sequence of events. But in general, by storing in the produced sequence the position of the receiver in the consumed sequence, and using optimistic concurrency control when records are inserted in the produced sequence, at least from the point of view of consumers of the produced sequence, “exactly once” processing can be achieved. Redundant (concurrent) processing of the same sequence would then be possible, which may help to avoid interruptions in processing the application’s events.
If placing all the events in a single sequence is restrictive, then perhaps partitioning the application notifications may offer a scalable approach. For example, if each user’s work is independent of the others’, then each could have one partition, each notification sequence would contain all events from the aggregates pertaining to one user. So that the various sequences can be discovered, it would be useful to have a sequence in which the creation of each partition is recorded. The application could then be scaled by partition.
If partitioning the aggregates of application is restrictive, perhaps because each user’s work is dependent on the others’, then it might be possible to have a notification sequence for each aggregate; in this case, the events would already have been placed in a sequence and so they could be presented directly as notifications. But as aggregates come and go, the overhead of keeping track of the notification sequences may become restrictive.
Another possibility would be to sequence the lists of events published when saving
the pending events of an aggregate (see
so that in cases where it is feasible to place all the commands in a sequence, it would also be feasible
to place the resulting lists of events for each command in a sequence. Sequencing
the lists would allow these little units of coherence to be propagated atomically,
which may be useful in some cases. (Please note, the library doesn’t currently support
atomic notification of collections of events, instead each event is notified individually.)
Before continuing with code examples below, we need to setup an event store.
from uuid import uuid4 from eventsourcing.application.policies import PersistencePolicy from eventsourcing.domain.model.entity import DomainEntity from eventsourcing.infrastructure.eventstore import EventStore from eventsourcing.infrastructure.repositories.array import BigArrayRepository from eventsourcing.infrastructure.sequenceditem import StoredEvent from eventsourcing.infrastructure.sequenceditemmapper import SequencedItemMapper from eventsourcing.infrastructure.sqlalchemy.datastore import SQLAlchemyDatastore, SQLAlchemySettings from eventsourcing.infrastructure.sqlalchemy.manager import SQLAlchemyRecordManager from eventsourcing.infrastructure.sqlalchemy.records import StoredEventRecord # Setup the database. datastore = SQLAlchemyDatastore( settings=SQLAlchemySettings(), tables=[StoredEventRecord], ) datastore.setup_connection() datastore.setup_tables() # Setup the record manager. record_manager = SQLAlchemyRecordManager( session=datastore.session, record_class=StoredEventRecord, sequenced_item_class=StoredEvent, contiguous_record_ids=True, application_name=uuid4().hex, ) # Setup a sequenced item mapper. sequenced_item_mapper = SequencedItemMapper( sequenced_item_class=StoredEvent, ) # Setup the event store. event_store = EventStore( record_manager=record_manager, event_mapper=sequenced_item_mapper ) # Set up a persistence policy. persistence_policy = PersistencePolicy( event_store=event_store, persist_event_type=DomainEntity.Event )
Please note, the
SQLAlchemyRecordManager is has its
contiguous_record_ids option enabled.
The infrastructure classes are explained in other sections of this documentation.
The fundamental concern here is to propagate the events of an application without events being missed, duplicated, or jumbled.
The events of an application sequence could be sequenced with either timestamps or integers. Sequencing the application events by timestamp is supported by the relational timestamp sequenced record classes, in that their position column is indexed. However, the notification logs only work with integer sequences.
Sequencing with integers involves generating a sequence of integers, which is easy to follow, but can limit the rate at which records can be written. Using timestamps allows records to be inserted independently of others, but timestamps can cause uncertainty when following the events of an application.
If an application’s domain model involves the library’s
class, which publishes all pending events together as a list, rather than
inserting each event, it would be possible to insert the lists of events
into the application sequence as a single entry. This may reduce the number
of inserts into the application sequence. However since this library uses
one table with two indexes for the aggregate and application sequence,
perhaps the greatest benefit would be processing these atomically a list
of events that have been created atomically. That might avoid projections
being in an intermediate state such that a user could view only some of the
effects of an action when that would be alarming. This isn’t implemented at
time of writing.
If time itself was ideal, then timestamps would be ideal. Each event could then have a timestamp that could be used to index and iterate through the events of the application. However, there are many clocks, and each runs slightly differently from the others.
If the timestamps of the application events are created by different clocks, then it is possible to write events in an order that creates consistency errors when reconstructing the application state. Hence it is also possible for new records to be written with a timestamp that is earlier than the latest one, which makes following the application sequence tricky.
A “jitter buffer” can be used, otherwise any events timestamped by a relatively retarded clock, and hence positioned behind events that were inserted earlier, could be missed. The delay, or the length of the buffer, must be greater than the differences between clocks, but how do we know for sure what is the maximum difference between the clocks?
Of course, there are lots of remedies. Clocks can be synchronised, more or less. A timestamp server could be used, and hybrid monotonically increasing timestamps can implemented. Furthermore, the risk of simultaneous timestamps can be mitigated by using a random component to the timestamp, as with UUID v1 (which randomizes the order of otherwise “simultaneous” events).
These techniques (and others) are common, widely discussed, and entirely legitimate approaches to the complications encountered when using timestamps to sequence events. The big advantage of using timestamps is that you don’t need to generate a sequence of integers, and applications can be distributed and scaled without performance being limited by a fragile single-threaded auto-incrementing integer-sequence bottleneck.
In support of this approach, the library’s relational record classes for timestamp
sequenced items. In particular, the
TimestampSequencedRecord classes for SQLAlchemy
and Django index their position field, which is a timestamp, and so this index can be
used to get all application events ordered by timestamp. If you use this class in this
way, make sure your clocks are in sync, and query events from the last position until
a time in the recent past, in order to implement a jitter buffer.
To reproduce an application’s sequence of events perfectly, without any risk of gaps or duplicates or jumbled items, or race conditions, it seems that we need to generate and then follow a contiguous sequence of integers. It is also possible to generate and follow a non-contiguous sequence of integers, but the gaps will need to be negotiated, by guessing how long an unusually slow write would take to become visible, since such gaps could be filled in the future.
The library’s relational record managers have record classes that have an indexed integer ID column. Record IDs are used to place all the application’s event records in a single sequence. This technique is recommended for enterprise applications, and at least the earlier stages of more ambitious projects. There is an inherent limit to the rate at which an application can write events using this technique, which essentially follows from the need to write events in series. The rate limit is the reciprocal of the time it takes to write one event record, which depends on the insert statement.
By default, these library record classes have an auto-incrementing ID, which will generate an increasing sequence as records are inserted, but which may have gaps if an insert fails. Optionally, the record managers can also can be used to generate contiguous record IDs, with an “insert select from” SQL statement that, as a clause in the insert statement, selects the maximum record ID from the visible table records. Since it is only possible to extend the sequence, the visible record IDs will form a contiguous sequence, which is the easiest thing to follow, because there is no possibility for race conditions where events appear behind the last visible event. The “insert select from” statement will probably be slower than the default “insert values” and the auto-incrementing ID, and only one of many concurrent inserts will be successful. Exceptions from concurrent inserts could be mitigated with retried, and avoided entirely by serialising the inserts with a queue, for example in an actor framework. Although this will smooth over spikes, and unfortunate coincidences will be avoided, the continuous maximum throughput will not be increased, a queue will eventually reach a limit and a different exception will be raised.
Given the rate limit, it could take an application quite a long time to fill up a well provisioned database table. Nevertheless, if the rate of writing or the volume of domain event records in your system inclines you towards partitioning the table of stored events, or if anyway your database works in this way (e.g. Cassandra), then the table would need to be partitioned by sequence ID so that the aggregate performance isn’t compromised by having its events distributed across partitions, which means maintaining an index of record IDs across such partitions, and hence sequencing the events of an application in this way, will be problematic.
To proceed without an indexed record ID column, the library class
can be used to sequence all the events of an application. This technique
can be used as an alternative to using a native database index of record IDs,
especially in situations where a normal database index across all records is
generally discouraged (e.g. in Cassandra), or where records do not have an
integer ID or timestamp that can be indexed (e.g. all the library’s record
classes for Cassandra, and the
IntegerSequencedNoIDRecord for SQLAlchemy,
or when storing an index for a large number of records in a single partition
is undesirable for infrastructure or performance reasons, or is not supported
by the database.
BigArray can be used to construct both contiguous and non-contiguous
integer sequences. As with the record IDs above, if each item is positioned in the
next position after the last visible record, then a contiguous sequence is generated,
but at the cost of finding the last visible record. However, if a number generator
is used, the rate is limited by the rate at which numbers can be issued, but if inserts
can fail, then numbers can be lost and the integer sequence will have gaps.
A relational record manager can function as an application sequence,
especially when its record class has an ID field, and more so when the
contiguous_record_ids option is enabled. This technique ensures
that whenever an entity or aggregate command returns successfully,
any events will already have been simultaneously placed in both the
aggregate’s and the application’s sequence. Importantly, if inserting
an event hits a uniqueness constraint and the transaction is rolled
back, the event will not appear in either sequence.
This approach provides perfect accuracy with great simplicity for
followers, but it has a maximum total rate at which records can be
written into the database. In particular, the
feature executes an “insert select from” SQL statement that generates
contiguous record IDs when records are inserted, on the database-side
as a clause in the insert statement, by selecting the maximum existing
ID in the table, adding one, and inserting that value, along with the
Because the IDs must be unique, applications may experience the library’s
ConcurrencyError exception if they happen to insert records
simultaneously with others. Record ID conflicts are retried a finite
number of times by the library before a
is raised. But with a load beyond the capability of a service, increased
congestion will be experienced by the application as an increased frequency
of concurrency errors.
Please note, without the
contiguous_record_ids feature enabled,
the ID columns of library record classes should be merely auto-incrementing,
and so the record IDs can anyway be used to get all the records in
the order they were written. However, auto-incrementing the ID can lead to
a sequence of IDs that has gaps, a non-contiguous sequence, which could lead
to race conditions and missed items. The gaps would need to be negotiated,
which is relatively complicated. To keep things relatively simple, a record
manager that does not have the
contiguous_record_ids feature enabled cannot
be used with the library class
(introduced below). If you want to sequence the application events with a non-contiguous
sequence, then you will need to write something that can negotiate the gaps.
To use contiguous IDs to sequence the events of an application, simply use a
relational record manager with an
IntegerSequencedRecord that has an ID,
such as the
StoredEventRecord record class, and with a True value for its
contiguous_record_ids constructor argument. The
above was constructed in this way. The records can be then be obtained
get_notifications() method of the record manager. The record IDs
will form a contiguous sequence, suitable for the
from eventsourcing.domain.model.entity import VersionedEntity notifications = list(record_manager.get_notifications()) assert len(notifications) == 0, notifications first_entity = VersionedEntity.__create__() notifications = list(record_manager.get_notifications(start=0, stop=5)) assert len(notifications) == 1, notifications
The local notification log class
(see below) can adapt record managers, presenting the
application sequence as notifications in a standard way.
This is a long section, and can be skipped if you aren’t currently trying to scale beyond the limits of a database table that has indexed record IDs.
To support ultra-high capacity requirements, the application sequence must be capable of having a very large number of events, neither swamping an individual database partition (in Cassandra) nor distributing things across table partitions without any particular order so that iterating through the sequence is slow and expensive. We also want the application log effectively to have constant time read and write operations for normal usage.
The library class
satisfies these requirements quite well, by spanning across many such
partitions. It is a tree of arrays, with a root array that stores
references to the current apex, with an apex that contains references
to arrays, which either contain references to lower arrays or contain
the items assigned to the big array. Each array uses one database
partition, limited in size (the array size) to ensure the partition
is never too large. The identity of each array can be calculated directly
from the index number, so it is possible to identify arrays directly
without traversing the tree to discover entity IDs. The capacity of base
arrays is the array size to the power of the array size. For a reasonable
size of array, it isn’t really possible to fill up the base of such an
array tree, but the slow growing properties of this tree mean that for
all imaginable scenarios, the performance will be approximately constant
as items are appended to the big array.
Items can be appended to a big array using the
The append() method identifies the next available index in the array,
and then assigns the item to that index in the array. A
ConcurrencyError will be raised if
the position is already taken.
The performance of the
append() method is proportional to the log of the
index in the array, to the base of the array size used in the big array, rounded
up to the nearest integer, plus one (because of the root sequence that tracks
the apex). For example, if the sub-array size is 10,000, then it will take only 50%
longer to append the 100,000,000th item to the big array than the 1st one. By
the time the 1,000,000,000,000th index position is assigned to a big array, the
append() method will take only twice as long as the 1st.
That’s because the default performance of the
append() method is dominated
by the need to walk down the big array’s tree of arrays to find the highest
assigned index. Once the index of the next position is known, the item can be
assigned directly to an array. The performance can be improved by using an integer
sequence generator, but departing from using the current max ID risks creating
gaps in the sequence of IDs.
from uuid import uuid4 from eventsourcing.domain.model.array import BigArray from eventsourcing.infrastructure.repositories.array import BigArrayRepository repo = BigArrayRepository( event_store=event_store, array_size=10000 ) big_array = repo[uuid4()] big_array.append('item0') big_array.append('item1') big_array.append('item2') big_array.append('item3')
Because there is a small duration of time between checking for the next
position and using it, another thread could jump in and use the position
first. If that happens, a
will be raised by the
object. In such a case, another attempt can be made to append the item.
Items can be assigned directly to a big array using an index number. If an item has already been assigned to the same position, a concurrency error will be raised, and the original item will remain in place. Items cannot be unassigned from an array, hence each position in the array can be assigned once only.
The average performance of assigning an item is a constant time. The worst case is the log of the index with base equal to the array size, which occurs when containing arrays are added, so that the last highest assigned index can be discovered. The probability of departing from average performance is inversely proportional to the array size, since the arger the array size, the less often the base arrays fill up. For a decent array size, the probability of needing to build the tree is very low. And when the tree does need building, it doesn’t take very long (and most of it probably already exists).
from eventsourcing.exceptions import ConcurrencyError assert big_array.get_next_position() == 4 big_array = 'item4' try: big_array = 'item4a' except ConcurrencyError: pass else: raise
If the next available position in the array must be identified
each time an item is assigned, the amount of contention will increase
as the number of threads increases. Using the
append() method alone
will work if the time period of appending events is greater than the
time it takes to identify the next available index and assign to it.
At that rate, any contention will not lead to congestion. Different
nodes can take their chances assigning to what they believe is an
unassigned index, and if another has already taken that position,
the operation can be retried.
However, there will be an upper limit to the rate at which events can be appended, and contention will eventually lead to congestion that will cause requests to backup or be spilled.
The rate of assigning items to the big array can be greatly increased
by factoring out the generation of the sequence of integers. Instead of
discovering the next position from the array each time an item is assigned,
an integer sequence generator can be used to generate a contiguous sequence
of integers. This technique eliminates contention around assigning items to
the big array entirely. In consequence, the bandwidth of assigning to a big
array using an integer sequence generator is much greater than using the
If the application is executed in only one process, for example during development,
the number generator can be a simple Python object. The library class
generates a contiguous sequence of integers that can be shared across multiple
threads in the same process.
from eventsourcing.infrastructure.integersequencegenerators.base import SimpleIntegerSequenceGenerator integers = SimpleIntegerSequenceGenerator() generated =  for i in integers: if i >= 5: break generated.append(i) expected = list(range(5)) assert generated == expected, (generated, expected)
If the application is deployed across many nodes, an external integer sequence
generator can be used. There are many possible solutions. The library class
uses Redis’ INCR command to generate a contiguous sequence of integers
that can be shared be processes running on different nodes.
Using Redis doesn’t necessarily create a single point of failure. Redundancy can be obtained using clustered Redis. Although there aren’t synchronous updates between nodes, so that the INCR command may issue the same numbers more than once, these numbers can only ever be used once. As failures are retried, the position will eventually reach an unassigned index position. Arrangements can be made to set the value from the highest assigned index. With care, the worst case will be an occasional slight delay in storing events, caused by switching to a new Redis node and catching up with the current index number. Please note, there is currently no code in the library to update or resync the Redis key used in the Redis INCR integer sequence generator.
from eventsourcing.infrastructure.integersequencegenerators.redisincr import RedisIncr integers = RedisIncr() generated =  for i in integers: generated.append(i) if i >= 4: break expected = list(range(5)) assert generated == expected, (generated, expected)
The integer sequence generator can be used when assigning items to the big array object.
big_array[next(integers)] = 'item5' big_array[next(integers)] = 'item6' assert big_array.get_next_position() == 7
Items can be read from the big array using an index or a slice.
The performance of reading an item at a given index is always constant time with respect to the number of the index. The base array ID, and the index of the item in the base array, can be calculated from the number of the index.
The performance of reading a slice of items is proportional to the size of the slice. Consecutive items in a base array are stored consecutively in the same database partition, and if the slice overlaps more than base array, the iteration proceeds to the next partition.
assert big_array == 'item0' assert list(big_array[5:7]) == ['item5', 'item6']
The big array can be written to by a persistence policy. References to events could be assigned to the big array before the domain event is written to the aggregate’s own sequence, so that it isn’t possible to store an event in the aggregate’s sequence that is not already in the application sequence. To do that, construct the application logging policy object before the normal application persistence policy. Also, make sure the application log policy excludes the events published by the big array (otherwise there will be an infinite recursion). If the event fails to write, then the application sequence will have a dangling reference, which followers will have to cope with.
Alternatively, if the database supports transactions across different tables (not Cassandra), the big array assignment and the event record insert can be done in the same transaction, so they both appear or neither does. This will help to avoid some complexity for followers. The library currently doesn’t have any code that writes to both in the same transaction.
Todo: Code example of policy that places application domain events in a big array.
If the big array item is not assigned in the same separate transaction as the event record is inserted, commands that fail to insert the event record after the event has been assigned to the big array (due to an operation error or a concurrency error) should probably raise an exception, so that the command is seen to have failed and so may be retried. An event would then be in the application sequence but not in the aggregate sequence, which is effectively a dangling reference, one that may or may not be satisfied later. If the event record insert failed due to an operational error, and the command is retried, a new event at the same position in the same sequence may be published, and so it would appear twice in the application sequence. And so, whilst dangling references in the application log can perhaps be filtered out by followers after a delay, care should be taken by followers to deduplicate events.
It may also happen that an item fails to be assigned to the big array. In this case, an ID that was issued by an integer sequence generator would be lost. The result would be a gap, that would need to be negotiated by followers.
If writing the event to its aggregate sequence is successful, then it is possible to push a notification about the event to a message queue. Failing to push the notification perhaps should not prevent the command returning normally. Push notifications could also be generated by another process, something that pulls from the application log, and pushes notifications for events that have not already been sent.
Since we can imagine there is quite a lot of noise in the sequence, it may be useful to process the application sequence within the context by constructing another sequence that does not have duplicates or gaps, and then propagating that sequence.
The local notification log class
(see below) can adapt big arrays, presenting the assigned items
as notifications in a standard way. Gaps in the array will result in
notification items of
None. But where there are gaps, there
can be race conditions, where the gaps are filled. Only a contiguous
sequence, which has no gaps, can exclude gaps being filled later.
Please note: there is an unimplemented enhancement which would allow this data structure to be modified in a single transaction, because the new non-leaf nodes can be determined from the position of the new leaf node, however currently a less optimal approach is used which attempts to add all non-leaf nodes and carries on in case of conflicts.
As described in Implementing Domain Driven Design, a notification log presents a sequence of notification items in linked sections.
Sections are obtained from a notification log using Python’s “square brackets” sequence index syntax. The key is a section ID. A special section ID called “current” can be used to obtain a section which contains the latest notification (see examples below).
Each section contains a limited number items, the size is fixed by
the notification log’s
section_size constructor argument. When
the current section is full, it is considered to be an archived section.
All the archived sections have an ID for the next section. Similarly, all sections except the first have an ID for the previous section.
A client can get the current section, go back until it reaches the last notification it has already received, and then go forward until all existing notifications have been received.
The section ID numbering scheme follows Vaughn Vernon’s book. Section IDs are strings: a string formatted with two integers separated by a comma. The integers represent the first and last number of the items included in a section.
The classes below can be used to present a sequence of items, such the domain events of an application, in linked sections. They can also be used to present other sequences for example a projection of the application sequence, where the events are rendered in a particular way for a particular purpose, such as analytics.
A local notification log could be presented by an API in a serialized format e.g. JSON or Atom XML. A remote notification log could then access the API and provide notification items in the standard way. The serialized section documents could then be cached using standard cacheing mechanisms.
A relational record manager can be adapted by the library class
which will then present the application’s events as notifications.
is constructed with a
record_manager, and a
from eventsourcing.application.notificationlog import RecordManagerNotificationLog # Construct notification log. notification_log = RecordManagerNotificationLog(record_manager, section_size=5) # Get the "current" section from the record notification log. section = notification_log['current'] assert section.section_id == '6,10', section.section_id assert section.previous_id == '1,5', section.previous_id assert section.next_id == None assert len(section.items) == 4, len(section.items) # Get the first section from the record notification log. section = notification_log['1,5'] assert section.section_id == '1,5', section.section_id assert section.previous_id == None, section.previous_id assert section.next_id == '6,10', section.next_id assert len(section.items) == 5, section.items
The notifications (
section.items) from a
are Python dicts with keys:
A domain event can be obtained from a notification by calling the method
event_from_topic_and_state() on a sequenced item mapper, passing in
state values. The
topic value can be resolved
to a Python class, such as a domain event class. An object instance, such
as a domain event object, can then be reconstructed using the notification’s
state. The notification’s
state is simply the stored event
so if the record data was encrypted, the notification data will also be
encrypted. The sequenced item mapper needs to be configured accordingly.
In the code below, the function
how that can be done (this function doesn’t exist in the library).
def resolve_notifications(notifications): return [ sequenced_item_mapper.event_from_topic_and_state( topic=notification['topic'], state=notification['state'] ) for notification in notifications ] # Resolve a section of notifications into domain events. domain_events = resolve_notifications(section.items) from eventsourcing.domain.model.array import ItemAssigned assert type(domain_events) == VersionedEntity.Created assert type(domain_events) == ItemAssigned assert type(domain_events) == ItemAssigned assert type(domain_events) == ItemAssigned assert type(domain_events) == ItemAssigned assert domain_events.originator_id == first_entity.id assert domain_events.item == 'item0' assert domain_events.item == 'item1' assert domain_events.item == 'item2'
If the notification data was encrypted by the sequenced item mapper, the sequenced item mapper will decrypt the data before reconstructing the domain event. In this example, the sequenced item mapper does not have a cipher, so the notification data is not encrypted.
An application could write separate notification records and event records. Having separate notification records allows notifications to be arbitrarily and therefore evenly distributed across a variable set of notification logs.
The number of logs could governed automatically by a scaling process so the cadence of each notification log is actively controlled to a constant level.
Todo: Merge these paragraphs, remove repetition (params below were moved from projections doc).
When an application has one notification log, any causal ordering between events will preserved in the log: you won’t be informed that something changed without previously being informed that it was created. But if there are many notification logs, then it would be possible to record casual ordering between events: the notifications recorded for the last events that were applied to the aggregates used when triggering new events can be included in the notifications for the new events. This avoids downstream needing to: serialise everything in order to recover order e.g. by merge sorting all logs by timestamp; partitioning the application state; or to ignore causal ordering. For efficiency, prior events that were notified in the same log wouldn’t need to be included. So it would make sense for all the events of a particular aggregate to be notified in the same log, but if necessary they could be distributed across different notification logs without downstream processing needing to incoherent or bottle-necked. To scale data, it might become necessary to fix an aggregate to a notification log, so that many databases can be used with each having the notification records and the event records together (and any upstream notification tracking records) so that atomic transactions for these records are still workable.
If all events in a process are placed in the same notification log sequence, since a notification log will need to be processed in series, the throughput is more or less limited by the rate at which a sequence can be processed by a single thread. To scale throughput, the application event notifications could be distributed into many different notification logs, and a separate operating system process (or thread) could run concurrently for each log. A set of notification logs could be processed by a single thread, that perhaps takes one notification in turn from each log, but with parallel processing, total throughput could be proportional to the number of notification logs used to propagate the domain events of an application.
Causal ordering can be maintained across the logs, so long as each event notification references the notifications for the last event in all the aggregates that were required to trigger the new events. If a notification references a notification in another log, then the processing can wait until that other notification has been processed. Hence notifications do not need to include notifications in the same log, as they will be processed first. On the other hand, if all notifications include such references to other notifications, then a notification log could be processed in parallel: since it is unlikely that each notification in a log depends on its immediate predecessor, wherever a sub-sequence of notifications all depend on notifications that have already been processed, those notifications could perhaps be processed concurrently.
There will be a trade-off between evenly distributing events across the various logs and minimising the number of causal ordering that go across logs. A simple and probably effective rule would be to place all the events of one aggregate in the same log. But it may also help to partition the aggregates of an application by e.g. user, and place the events of all aggregates created by a user in the same notification log, since they are perhaps most likely to be causally related. This mechanism would allow the number of logs to be increased and decreased, with aggregate event notifications switching from one log to another and still be processed coherently.
You can skip this section if you skipped the section about BigArray.
A big array can be adapted by the library class
which will then present the items assigned to the array as notifications.
is constructed with a
big_array, and a
from eventsourcing.application.notificationlog import BigArrayNotificationLog # Construct notification log. big_array_notification_log = BigArrayNotificationLog(big_array, section_size=5) # Get the "current "section from the big array notification log. section = big_array_notification_log['current'] assert section.section_id == '6,10', section.section_id assert section.previous_id == '1,5', section.previous_id assert section.next_id == None assert len(section.items) == 2, len(section.items) # Check we got the last two items assigned to the big array. assert section.items == ['item5', 'item6'] # Get the first section from the notification log. section = big_array_notification_log['1,10'] assert section.section_id == '1,5', section.section_id assert section.previous_id == None, section.previous_id assert section.next_id == '6,10', section.next_id assert len(section.items) == 5, section.items # Check we got the first five items assigned to the big array. assert section.items == ['item0', 'item1', 'item2', 'item3', 'item4']
Please note, for simplicity, the items in this example are just strings (‘item0’ etc). If the big array is being used to sequence the events of an application, it is possible to assign just the item’s sequence ID and position, and let followers get the actual event using those references.
Todo: Fix problem with not being able to write all of big array with one SQL expression, since it involves constructing the non-leaf records. Perhaps could be more precise about predicting which non-leaf records need to be inserted so that we don’t walk down from the top each time discovering whether or not a record exists. It’s totally predictable, but the code is cautious. But it would be possible to identify all the new records and add them. Still not really possible to use “insert select max”, but if each log has it’s own process, then IDs can be issued from a generator, initialised from a query, and reused if an insert fails so the sequence is contiguous.
The RESTful API design in Implementing Domain Driven Design suggests a good way to present the notification log, a way that is simple and can scale using established HTTP technology.
This library has a pair of classes that can help to present a notification log remotely.
class has the same interface for getting sections as the local notification
log classes described above, but instead of using a local datasource, it
requests serialized sections from a Web API.
class serializes sections from a local notification log, and can be used
to implement a Web API that presents notifications to a network.
Alternatively to presenting domain event data and topic information,
a Web API could present only the event’s sequence ID and position values,
requiring clients to obtain the domain event from the event store using
those references. If the notification log uses a big array, and the big
array is assigned with only sequence ID and position values, the big array
notification log could be used directly with the
notify of domain events by reference rather than by value. However, if
the notification log uses a record manager, then a notification log adapter
would be needed to convert the events into the references.
If a notification log would then receive and would also return only sequence ID and position information to its caller. The caller could then proceed by obtaining the domain event from the event store. Another adapter could be used to perform the reverse operation: adapting a notification log that contains references to one that returns whole domain event objects. Such adapters are not currently provided by this library.
The library class
presents sections from a local notification log, and can be used to implement a Web API.
The example below uses the record notification log, constructed above.
import json from eventsourcing.interface.notificationlog import NotificationLogView from eventsourcing.utils.transcoding import ObjectJSONEncoder, ObjectJSONDecoder view = NotificationLogView( notification_log=notification_log, json_encoder=ObjectJSONEncoder() ) section_json = view.present_resource('1,5') section_dict = ObjectJSONDecoder().decode(section_json.decode('utf8')) assert section_dict['section_id'] == '1,5' assert section_dict['next_id'] == '6,10' assert section_dict['previous_id'] == None assert section_dict['items'] == notification_log['1,5'].items assert len(section_dict['items']) == 5 item = section_dict['items'] assert item['id'] == 1 assert item['topic'] == 'eventsourcing.domain.model.entity#VersionedEntity.Created' assert section_dict['items']['topic'] == 'eventsourcing.domain.model.array#ItemAssigned' assert section_dict['items']['topic'] == 'eventsourcing.domain.model.array#ItemAssigned' assert section_dict['items']['topic'] == 'eventsourcing.domain.model.array#ItemAssigned' assert section_dict['items']['topic'] == 'eventsourcing.domain.model.array#ItemAssigned' # Resolve the notifications to domain events. domain_events = resolve_notifications(section_dict['items']) # Check we got the first entity's "created" event. assert isinstance(domain_events, VersionedEntity.Created) assert domain_events.originator_id == first_entity.id
A Web application could identify a section ID from an HTTP request path, and respond by returning an HTTP response with JSON content that represents that section of a notification log.
The example uses the library’s
serialize the sections of the record notification log (see above).
def notification_log_wsgi(environ, start_response): # Identify section from request. section_id = environ['PATH_INFO'].strip('/') # Construct notification log view. view = NotificationLogView(notification_log) # Get serialized section. section = view.present_resource(section_id) # Start HTTP response. status = '200 OK' headers = [('Content-type', 'text/plain; charset=utf-8')] start_response(status, headers) # Return body. return [(line + '\n').encode('utf8') for line in section.split('\n')]
A more sophisticated application might include an ETag header when responding with the current section, and a Cache-Control header when responding with archived sections.
A more standard approach would be to use Atom (application/atom+xml)
which is a common standard for producing RSS feeds and thus a great
fit for representing lists of events, rather than
However, just as this library doesn’t (currently) have any code that
generates Atom feeds from domain events, there isn’t any code that
reads domain events from atom feeds. So if you wanted to use Atom
in your API, then you will also need to write a version of
that can work with your Atom API.
The library class
can be used in the same way as the local notification logs above. The difference is that
rather than accessing a database using a record manager, it makes requests to an API.
class is constructed with a
notification_log_id and a
json_decoder_class. The JSON decoder must be capable of decoding JSON encoded by
the API. Hence, the JSON decoder must match the JSON encoder used by the API.
json_decoder_class is the library class
ObjectJSONDecoder. This encoder
matches the default
json_encoder_class of the library class
which is also the library class
If you want to extend the JSON encoder classes used here, just make sure they match,
otherwise you will get decoding errors.
NotificationLogReader can use the
RemoteNotificationLog in the same way that
it uses a local notification log object. Just construct it with a remote notification log
object, rather than a local notification log object, then read notifications in the same
way (as described above).
If the API uses a
to serialise the sections of a local notification log, the remote notification log object
functions effectively as a proxy for a local notification log on a remote node.
from eventsourcing.interface.notificationlog import RemoteNotificationLog remote_notification_log = RemoteNotificationLog("base_url")
If a server were running at “base_url” the
function in the same was as the local notification logs described above, returning
section objects for section IDs using the square brackets syntax.
If the section objects were created by a
that had the
notification_log above, we could obtain all the events of an
application across an HTTP connection, accurately and without great complication.
test_notificationlog.py for an example that uses a Flask app running
in a local HTTP server to get notifications remotely using these classes.
The library object class
functions as an iterator, yielding a continuous sequence of notifications that
it discovers from the sections of a notification log, local or remote.
A notification log reader object will navigate the linked sections of a notification
log, backwards from the “current” section of the notification log, until reaching the position
it seeks. The position, which defaults to
0, can be set directly with the reader’s
method. Hence, by default, the reader will navigate all the way back to the
After reaching the position it seeks, the reader will then navigate forwards, yielding as a continuous sequence all the subsequent notifications in the notification log.
As it navigates forwards, yielding notifications, it maintains position so that it can
continue when there are further notifications. This position could be persisted, so that
position is maintained across invocations, but that is not a feature of the
and would have to be added in a subclass or client object.
supports slices. The position is set indirectly when a slice has a start index.
All the notification logs discussed above (local and remote) have the same interface,
and can be used by
progressively to obtain unseen notifications.
The example below happens to yield notifications from a big array notification log, but it would work equally well with a record notification log, or with a remote notification log.
Todo: Maybe just use “obj.read()” rather than “list(obj)”, so it’s more file-like.
from eventsourcing.application.notificationlog import NotificationLogReader # Construct log reader. reader = NotificationLogReader(notification_log) # The position is zero by default. assert reader.position == 0 # The position can be set directly. reader.seek(10) assert reader.position == 10 # Reset the position. reader.seek(0) # Read all existing notifications. all_notifications = reader.read_list() assert len(all_notifications) == 9 # Resolve the notifications to domain events. domain_events = resolve_notifications(all_notifications) # Check we got the first entity's created event. assert isinstance(domain_events, VersionedEntity.Created) assert domain_events.originator_id == first_entity.id # Check the position has advanced. assert reader.position == 9 # Read all subsequent notifications (should be none). subsequent_notifications = list(reader) assert subsequent_notifications ==  # Publish two more events. VersionedEntity.__create__() VersionedEntity.__create__() # Read all subsequent notifications (should be two). subsequent_notifications = reader.read_list() assert len(subsequent_notifications) == 2 # Check the position has advanced. assert reader.position == 11 # Read all subsequent notifications (should be none). subsequent_notifications = reader.read_list() len(subsequent_notifications) == 0 # Publish three more events. VersionedEntity.__create__() VersionedEntity.__create__() last_entity = VersionedEntity.__create__() # Read all subsequent notifications (should be three). subsequent_notifications = reader.read_list() assert len(subsequent_notifications) == 3 # Check the position has advanced. assert reader.position == 14 # Resolve the notifications. domain_events = resolve_notifications(subsequent_notifications) last_domain_event = domain_events[-1] # Check we got the last entity's created event. assert isinstance(last_domain_event, VersionedEntity.Created), last_domain_event assert last_domain_event.originator_id == last_entity.id # Read all subsequent notifications (should be none). subsequent_notifications = reader.read_list() assert subsequent_notifications ==  # Check the position has advanced. assert reader.position == 14
The position could be persisted, and the persisted value could be used to initialise the reader’s position when reading is restarted.
In this way, the events of an application can be followed with perfect accuracy and without lots of complications. This seems to be an inherently reliable approach to following the events of an application.
# Clean up. persistence_policy.close()